Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG, Menotrophin) is a combination of the two pituitary gonadotrophic hormones “Follicle Stimulating Hormone” (FSH) and “Luteinizing Hormone” (LH). The proportion of these two hormones in Menotrophin is approximately 1:1. These hormones are secreted by pituitary glands together with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Menotrophin (HMG) supports the normal development of an egg in a woman’s ovary and stimulates the release of the egg during ovulation. In the male, it stimulates the spermatogenesis by acting on the production of the androgen-binding protein in the seminiferous tubules of the sertoli cells.
FSH and LH are glycoprotein hormones. Both consist of two non-identical subunits: the alpha subunit and the beta subunit. The molecular weight of each of these glycoprotein hormones is ca. 32,000 Dalton, with each subunit having a molecular weight of ca. 16,000 Dalton. The structure of FSH and LH is similar to the structure of the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG). The alpha subunits of FSH, LH, TSH and HCG are identical and consist of 92 amino acids. The difference is in the beta subunit of each of these glycoprotein hormones. FSH has a beta subunit of 111 amino acids, whereas that of LH is made of 121 amino acids.
HMG is used within the scope of assisted reproductive technologies (ART).
It is used to stimulate the development of multiple oocytes in ovulatory patients participating in an in vivo fertility program. Further it is given to assist in the intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment and in vitro fertilization technique (IVF). HMG is indicated in Hypogonadotrophic hypopituitarism (WHO Group I patients) where both gonadotropin stimulations are needed. In patients showing normal or high LH levels (WHO Group II patients), require preparations without LH activity, this character belongs to FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
HMG and subsequently HCG are indicated for the induction of ovulation in the amenorrhoeic patient or anovulatory women with regular or irregular cycles.
HMG with concomitant HCG therapy is indicated for the stimulation of spermatogenesis in men who have primary or secondary Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism